JavaScript: var, let and const

If you are a JavaScript programmer, you may have seen the usage of different types of keywords like let, var and const all over your code. Do you know the difference between them and which one to pick?

If you are confused about the differences between let, var and const keywords in JavaScript, this post is for you.


Before ES6 (ES2015) few years ago, there was only one way to declare variables and constants in JavaScript, which was using var.

Function Scope

To understand var, we need to first learn how they are scoped. Let’s look at a simple example below to learn more about it.

function begin () {
 for (var i=0; i<5; i++) {
// i is accessible outside the for loop

Now, in our code snippet above, we have a variable i that is declared inside the for loop. The console output that you will see for this code is shown below.


What is strange here is that, although the variable i is declared inside the for-loop, it is still accessible outside the scope of the for-loop. This is because the var variables are accessible within the scope of the function that they are declared.

In our example, the variable i is accessible anywhere within the function begin(). This is a behaviour that is unique to the JavaScript var keyword. In many other languages, the expected behaviour, would be that the scope of i is limited to the block within which it is declared.

Global Scope

Now, let’s take a look at another example.

var name = 'Adhithi';

In this example, I have declared a variable name using var, outside a function. Now, JavaScript treats this as a global variable, and attaches it to the window object. Since there is only one instance of the window object, attaching our global variables to the window object is a bad practice. If you were to use a third-party library that has variables with the same name as your global variables, then you run into the risk of your variables being overridden.

var variables have a function-scope, if they are not declared within a function, they have a global-scope.

Since var does not offer a block-scope, and also attaches itself to the window object, incase of global scope, it leads to several problems and unexpected behaviour of your application.

After ES6/ES2015, JavaScript introduced let and const as newer alternatives to overcome the problems faced with varLet’s dive into those next.


Typically, we want our variables to be scoped within a block of code. If we declare a variable within a block of code say a for-loop, we want it to live within that block and be inaccessible outside of it. This behavior can be achieved in JavaScript using the let keyword.

Let’s go back to our previous example, and replace the var with let instead.

function begin () {
 for (let i=0; i<5; i++) {
// i is not defined and will return an error

The output that we see for this example after replacing it with let will be slightly different than the previous example.

Uncaught reference error: i is not defined

The console log that happens outside the for-loop block returns an error. It does not know what i is, and returns that i is not defined. This is a desirable output that we get with the use of let instead of var.

let is block-scoped and variables declared within a block of code cannot be accessed outside of it.

Now that we know the major differences between var and let, we can explore the next keyword const.


const is another addition in the ES6 JavaScript standards. It is similar to let, where it also adheres to the block-scope. The difference between const and let can be understood with a simple example below.

const name = 'Adhithi';
let age = 25;
// can reassign age
age = 27;

In the example above, I have assigned a name using const and an age using letYou can notice here that I can assign another value to age and it will work just fine.

In the same example, I cannot assign another value to the const name.

const name = 'Adhithi';
let age = 25;
age = 27;
// cannot re-assign name. will throw error
name = 'Adhithi Ravichandran';

This example above will throw an error when name is :TypeError: Assignment to constant variable.

The takeaway here is that, const  does not allow you to re-assign values to a constant variable. Whereas, let allows you to re-assign values to variables that already have a value (example above: age).

Let’s take a look at how const objects work in JavaScript.

const user = {"name": "Adhithi", "age": 10}
//Can manipulate object properties = "Josh";

//Cannot re-assign the entire object
user = {"name": "Josh", "age": "12"}  //Uncaught TypeError: Assignment to constant variable

In this example, we can manipulate the properties of an Object. We can change the name and age properties of the user Object although the user Object is a const.

But, we cannot re-assign the entire Object. The idea is that in case of const Objects, the individual properties of the Object can be modified/re-assigned but the Object itself cannot be changed entirely.


Alright, we have reached the end of this post. In my opinion there are still times when you may want to use var, when you want to keep the scope within a function instead of a block of code.

let and const are great additions to the ES6 standards, to write more predictable code.

  1. var – Can be re-assigned, re-defined and has a function-scope. When declared outside the function, it has a global scope and attaches itself to the window object.
  2. let – Can be re-assigned. It’s scope is within a block of code.
  3. const – Cannot be re-assigned or re-defined. It’s scope is within a block of code.

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Adhithi Ravichandran is a Software Consultant based in Kansas City. She is currently working on building apps with React, React Native and GraphQL. She is a Conference Speaker, Pluralsight Author, Blogger and Software Consultant. She is passionate about teaching and thrives to contribute to the tech community with her courses, blog posts and speaking engagements.
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One response to “JavaScript: var, let and const”

  1. Alexander Ewering says:

    I still have to find one single example where the use of ‘const’ is ACTUALLY USEFUL.

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